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GUI Database Design Tools - PostgreSQL Wiki

When Geeks Have Twins [PIC]

Lançado o Pl/PHP – iMasters

You can run PHP code inside PostgreSQL database.

12 senhas que nunca devem ser usadas - Geek List

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The 15 Most Detrimental Social Media Mistakes You\'re Making

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Validar é importante?! | Tableless - Desenvolvimento com Padrões Web

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Tropeçando 8 – Republish

Evitando frustrações com sessões no PHP | Igor Escobar // Blog

PHP web applications can complement state in your applications very easily. Why is an illusion of state maintained by transporting one page and other information between one page and another losing it along the way. you've already lost potential productivity due to bizarre bugs or even security breaches because of these beauties. Here are four tips to save you time and secure your site. (in portuguese)

Javascript: Onunload VS Onbeforeunload | Igor Escobar // Blog

Fico pensando em um caso mais familiar possível para ilustrar a utilidade das duas funções e a melhor que me vem a cabeça é o Gmail. Já pensou em fazer algo parecido com o Gmail? Quando o usuário fechar a janela e alguma requisição estiver em processamento ele da um aviso sobre ela para evitar perda sem necessídade. Muita gente pensa que o evento utilizado para fazer tal proeza é o evento “onunload” mas não é. Existe uma pequena diferença entre os 2 eventos.

8 Regular Expressions You Should Know - Nettuts+

8 expressões regulares que você deve conhecer

The Web Application Security Consortium / The Web Security Glossary

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The Novel 100: The 100 Greatest Novels of All Time

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Dividindo dados em colunas - Mauro Pichiliani - SQL Server

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Vacation relaxation

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dBpoweramp: CD Ripper & Audio Converter. Secure ripping to mp3, FLAC, m4a, Apple Lossless & WMA

CD extractor and multi converter from different audio and video codecs. Lots of advanced options for different formats.

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Paje Online: Como Converter Vídeos no Linux?

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Comandos Básicos - Ubuntu Brasil

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Aprenda a fazer tudo

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Dicas para evitar fraudes da internet.

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Linux Operational Systems Tecnologia

Arch and my Thinkpad P14s

Here I will list some of the items I used to have Arch running with the minimum I needed for my ThinkPad P14s. I have experienced a seamless experience with my old ThinkPad Carbon x1.

I relate this to the Realtek 8852AE, an 802.11ax device used by P14s, that does not work out-the-box as the one used by x1, although faster.

Hardware

Software

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Tropeçando 1 – Republish

Browsershots

What is Browsershots? Browsershots tests your website's compatability on different browsers by taking screenshots of your web pages rendered by real browsers on different operating systems.

Free tier!

Reinstalando o GRUB

Alguém tentou reinstalar o outro Sistema Inoperacional e ele, genialmente, apagou a MBR e, conseqüentemente, a opção de escolha do GRUB? Agora dá para recuperar. Pelo Ubuntu (distribuição que uso e o do exemplo), é claro.

Ferramentas de segurança de rede

SecTools.Org: Top 125 Network Security Tools

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Mais um exemplo de uma boa galeria de fotos

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Redimensionamento de imagens pela web

Filmow

"O Filmow foi criado para pessoas viciadas e apaixonadas por filmes. A principal ideia do Filmow é que você mostre aos seus amigos os filmes que já assistiu, comente sobre eles e dê sua opinião, na página do filme. Mas, para os que apenas gostam de filmes, o Filmow também é uma rede social onde é possível encontrar pessoas e amigos. No Filmow você fica sabendo quais filmes são lançados, os que estão no cinema e aqueles que já estão em DVD, para você assistir em casa." (http://filmow.com/sobre-o-filmow/)

Categorias
PHP

Introducing value objects in PHP

Introducing value objects in PHP

Domain-Driven Design (DDD) is a software design philosophy with one crucial concept: the structure and language of software code (class names, class methods, class variables) should match the business domain. To attend to this concept, DDD presents Value Objects, which, in practice, represents an object similar to a primitive type but should be modelled after the domain's business rules.

What does it mean?

(Checkout code at https://github.com/rafaelbernard/blog-value-objects)

Value Objects are first described in Evans' Domain-Driven Design book, and further explained in Smith and Lerman's Domain-Driven Design Fundamentals course. It is an immutable type that is distinguishable only by the state of its properties. Unlike an Entity1, a class type with a unique identifier and remains distinct even if its properties are otherwise identical, two Value Objects with the same properties can be considered equal.

We would use Value Object classes to represent a type strictly and encapsulate the validation rules of that type. Think of age or a card from a poker deck. They can seem sufficiently represented by primitive types such as integer and string, but in reality, they are managed by strict business rules2. For example, you would like to ensure that a particular age value is a non-negative integer. Or a picked card has a value not greater than 10, not 1, i.e., there is a range of allowed numbers or unique letters combined within four allowed suits.

To translate it to code, you could think of a Person class as a guest application to map a person's name and age. Usually, we would say a name is a string and age is an int.

class Person
{
    private string $name;
    private int $age;

    public function __constructor(string $name, int $age)
    {
        $this->name = $name;
        $this->age = $age;
    }
}

Although we can think that the specification above is good and we are just instantiating a Person object with all the required attributes, we may have some problems with the implementation because negative values are also int and would be allowed:

$personOk = new Person('John Doe', 18);
$notARealPerson = new Person('Benjamin Button', -18); // -18 year? no way!

The code above will not fail and is very common that some business logic is performed to assert age will never be negative:

// if from a form
$age = (int) $_POST['age'];

if ($age < 0) {
    throw new \Exception('Age could not be negative');
}

// but you need to copy the check everywhere a Person class is used. What if someone overlooks it?
$person = new Person('John Doe', $age);

When using Value Objects, you leverage your class with the exact type you need, correctly applying business logic. I will give more details later, but a hint of how the Person class would be with a Value Object:

use App\Domain;

class Person
{
    private string $name;
    private Age $age;

    public function __construct(string $name, Age $age)
    {
        $this->name = $name;
        $this->age = $age;
    }
}

And now we are always sure that Person objects will have a valid age. Bear with me and understand how Age Value Object class should look.

Samples of Value Objects

You may have already realized that we have many cases where we need similar things on every application. They are used to validate patterns to an expected format, a set of possible values to simulate an enum (only present on PHP 8) or to extend this set of values to be validated against some more rules.

I will be using PHP 7.4 compatible code in this blog. If you have applications using older versions, changing them should not be too complicated. Let me know in the comments if you need samples about how to write to an older version.

Some examples:

Validating a format:

Our Age class should be implemented as:

<?php

namespace App\Domain;

class Age
{
    private int $value;

    /**
     * @param int $value
     */
    public function __construct(int $value)
    {
        if (!$value < 0) {
            throw new \UnexpectedValueException('Negative numbers are not a valid age.');
        }

        $this->value = $value;
    }

    public function value(): int
    {
        return $this->value;
    }
}

Or a richer example with card suits:

<?php

namespace App\Domain;

class CardSuit
{
    const HEARTS = 'H';
    const DIAMONDS = 'D';
    const CLUBS = 'C';
    const SPADES = 'S';

    const SUITS = [
        self::HEARTS,
        self::DIAMONDS,
        self::CLUBS,
        self::SPADES,
    ];

    private string $value;

    public function __construct(string $value)
    {
        if (!in_array($value, self::SUITS)) {
            throw new \InvalidArgumentException("`$value` is not a valid card suit.");
        }

        $this->value = $value;
    }

    public function __toString()
    {
        return $this->value;
    }

    public function value(): string
    {
        return $this->value;
    }
}

Validating a set and its rules:

Observe rules when checking grade with isAlumni() from a given ClassYear. Ideally, we would have a Grade class, but I kept it more straightforward to simplify understanding the check, and I have a similar example with poker cards classes above.

<?php

namespace App\Domain;

class ClassYear
{
    private int $value;

    /**
     * @param int $value
     */
    public function __construct(int $value)
    {
        // For class year, our business rules is from 1901-2999
        if (!preg_match('/^((19\d{2})|(2)\d{3})$/', $value)) {
            throw new \InvalidArgumentException('Invalid year');
        }

        $this->value = $value;
    }

    public static function fromNow(): self
    {
        return new self(date('Y'));
    }

    public function value(): int
    {
        return $this->value;
    }

    public function isAlumni(): bool
    {
        return date('Y') - $this->value >= 13;
    }
}

Enum-like validation:

Observe that it encapsulates some Enum values, but also a simple rule (isGreaterThan), and it enriches the type with a simple business rule support that the application can also use.

<?php

namespace App\Domain;

class CardRank
{
    const ACE = 'A';
    const KING = 'K';
    const QUEEN = 'Q';
    const JACK = 'J';
    const TEN = 'X';
    const NINE = '9';
    const EIGHT = '8';
    const SEVEN = '7';
    const SIX = '6';
    const FIVE = '5';
    const FOUR = '4';
    const THREE = '3';
    const TWO = '2';

    const RANKS = [
        self::ACE,
        self::KING,
        self::QUEEN,
        self::JACK,
        self::TEN,
        self::NINE,
        self::EIGHT,
        self::SEVEN,
        self::SIX,
        self::FIVE,
        self::FOUR,
        self::THREE,
        self::TWO
    ];

    const WEIGHTS = [
        self::ACE => 20,
        self::KING => 13,
        self::QUEEN => 12,
        self::JACK => 11,
        self::TEN => 10,
        self::NINE => 9,
        self::EIGHT => 8,
        self::SEVEN => 7,
        self::SIX => 6,
        self::FIVE => 5,
        self::FOUR => 4,
        self::THREE => 3,
        self::TWO => 2
    ];

    private string $value;

    public function __construct(string $value)
    {
        if (!in_array($value, self::RANKS)) {
            throw new \InvalidArgumentException("`$value` is not a valid card rank.");
        }

        $this->value = $value;
    }

    public function __toString()
    {
        return $this->value;
    }

    public function value(): string
    {
        return $this->value;
    }

    public function weight()
    {
        return self::WEIGHTS[$this->value];
    }

    public function isGreaterThan(CardRank $cardRank): bool
    {
        return $this->weight() > $cardRank->weight();
    }

    // Some static helper functions can be created to be more readable

    public static function two(): CardRank
    {
        return new self(self::TWO);
    }

    public static function ace(): CardRank
    {
        return new self(self::ACE);
    }
}

When to use it

Create and use the Value Objects whenever you see that it fits "encapsulate the business rules for a given type" and "it represents an object similar to a primitive type". This will directly understand the expected type of code and instantly validate capabilities.

Some examples:

// a
$person = new Person('John Doe', new Age(20));
public function saveGuest(Person $person);

// b
$currentUserClassYear = ClassYear::fromNow();
if (!$currentUserClassYear->isAlumni()) {
    // do something for a non-alumni user
}

// c
$pickedCard = new Card(new CardSuit(CardSuit::SPADES), new CardRank(CardRank::ACE));

// d
$aceSpade = new Card(CardSuit::spades(), CardRank::ace());
$twoSpade = new Card(CardSuit::spades(), CardRank::two());
if ($aceSpace->isGreaterThan($twoSpade)) {
    // do something when greater, such as sum the weight to count points
}

A code-base that uses Value Objects avoids repetition code to validate a type that is not represented by native types, improves readability, and keeps consistency about business rules (no one could overlook or forget to "copy the validation code check"). Value Objects has a built-in validation, making it superior to validation classes and creating a relationship with your business domain rules. It then keeps the code clean and lean.

You can see all related code at https://github.com/rafaelbernard/blog-value-objects.

Glossary

  1. Entity: An entity may be defined as a thing capable of an independent existence that can be uniquely identified. An entity is an abstraction from the complexities of a domain. When we speak of an entity, we normally speak of some aspect of the real world that can be distinguished from other aspects of the real world. [(from Wikipedia)]
  2. Business rule: A business rule defines or constrains some aspect of business and always resolves to either true or false. Business rules are intended to assert business structure or to control or influence the behavior of the business.
  3. Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm based on the concept of "objects", which can contain data and code: data in the form of fields (often known as attributes or properties), and code, in the form of procedures (often known as methods).
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PHP

PHP 8.1: more on new in initializers

I could not agree more with Brent when he says concerning the "new in initializers"[1] feature:

PHP 8.1 adds a feature that might seem like a small detail, but one that I think will have a significant day-by-day impact on many people.

When I see this new feature, lots of places that use Dependency Injection[3] come to my focus as candidates to be impacted, such as application or infrastructure service classes. As a result, we will write a much cleaner and leaner code without giving up on good practices to write modular, maintainable and testable software.

The Dependency Inversion Principle[4] gives us decoupling powers. But we know that many classes will receive the same concrete implementation most of (if not all) the time.

So this is very common to see some variation of this code:

$someDependencyToBeInjected = FactoryClass::create();
$someService = new SomeServiceClass($someDependencyToBeInjected);

Important note: I will ignore for now Service Containers and frameworks features that deal with service instantiation, auto wiring, etc.

Think of a database query service class: you depend on a connection object. Every time you need to instantiate your database service class, you need to prepare the connection dependency and inject it at the service class. Database connections are a great example when you use the same concrete implementation more than 90% of the time.

The same applies to a Service class that you use to handle business logic and depends on QueryService and CommandHandler interfaces to do its job.

Before PHP 8.1 we have code like this:

// service class to apply business logic
// most standard
class DefaultLeadRecordService implements LeadRecordService
{
    public function __construct(
        private LeadQueryService $queryService,
        private LeadCommandHandler $commandHandler
    ) {
    }
}

// infrastructure class to match the interface -- a DBAL concrete class
// sneakily allowing a "default" value, but also open to Dependency Injection
// but not that great
class DbalLeadQueryService implements LeadQueryService
{
    public function __construct(private ?Connection $connection = null)
    {
        if (!$this->connection) {
            $this->connection = Core::getConnection();
        }
    }
}

// instantiation would be something like -- given you have $connection already instantiated
$connection =  \Doctrine\DBAL\DriverManager::getConnection($connectionParams, $config);

$service = new \Blog\Application\DefaultLeadRecordService(
    new \Blog\Infrastructure\DbalLeadQueryService($connection),
    new \Blog\Infrastructure\DbalLeadCommandHandler($connection),
);

// if we allow construct get default value
$service = new \Blog\Application\DefaultLeadRecordService(
    new \Blog\Infrastructure\DbalLeadQueryService(),
    new \Blog\Infrastructure\DbalLeadCommandHandler(),
);

While on PHP 8.1, you will be able to write it like so:

class DefaultLeadRecordService implements LeadRecordService
{
    public function __construct(
        private LeadQueryService $queryService = new DbalLeadQueryService(),
        private LeadCommandHandler $commandHandler = new DbalLeadCommandHandler()
    ) {
    }
}

// we see there is still room for new features here
// still not that great
class DbalLeadQueryService implements LeadQueryService
{
    public function __construct(private ?Connection $connection = null)
    {
        // waiting when `new initializers` feature allows static function as default parameters
        if (!$this->connection) {
            $this->connection = Core::getConnection();
        }
    }
}

$service = new \Blog\Application\DefaultLeadRecordService();

One liner! That saves a lot of typing, and the code remains very well structured. This is the type of significant impact we will have on our day-to-day work. We will write a more straightforward, robust and meaningful code, and we will ship features faster with high-quality code.

If you want to see a full implementation of this, check the code at https://github.com/rafaelbernard/blog-php-81-new-initializers

Test, our faithful friend

Writing tests is a must-have for any repository where quality is a requirement. However, the "New in initializers" feature does not force us to give up on a complete suite of tests. We still have all powers of unit or integration tests.

For application code, we would write unit tests and all the expectations for concrete dependencies:

<?php

namespace Test\Unit\Blog\Application;

use Blog\Application\DefaultLeadRecordService;
use Blog\Domain\LeadCommandHandler;
use Blog\Domain\LeadQueryService;
use PHPUnit\Framework\MockObject\MockObject;
use Test\TestCase;

class DefaultLeadRecordServiceTest extends TestCase
{
    private const EMAIL = '[email protected]';

    private LeadQueryService|MockObject $leadQueryServiceMock;
    private LeadCommandHandler|MockObject $leadCommandHandlerMock;

    private DefaultLeadRecordService $service;

    protected function setUp(): void
    {
        parent::setUp();

        $this->leadQueryServiceMock = $this->getMockBuilder(LeadQueryService::class)->getMock();
        $this->leadCommandHandlerMock = $this->getMockBuilder(LeadCommandHandler::class)->getMock();

        $this->service = new DefaultLeadRecordService($this->leadQueryServiceMock, $this->leadCommandHandlerMock);
    }

    public function testCanAdd()
    {
        $this->leadQueryServiceMock
            ->expects(self::once())
            ->method('getByEmail')
            ->with(self::EMAIL)
            ->willReturn(false);

        $this->leadCommandHandlerMock
            ->expects(self::once())
            ->method('add')
            ->with(self::EMAIL)
            ->willReturn(1);

        $result = $this->service->add(self::EMAIL);

        self::assertEquals(1, $result);
    }

    public function testAddExistentReturnsFalse()
    {
        $this->leadQueryServiceMock
            ->expects(self::once())
            ->method('getByEmail')
            ->with(self::EMAIL)
            ->willReturn(['email' => self::EMAIL]);

        $this->leadCommandHandlerMock
            ->expects(self::never())
            ->method('add');

        $result = $this->service->add(self::EMAIL);

        self::assertFalse($result);
    }

    public function testCanGetAll()
    {
        $unsorted = [
            ['email' => '[email protected]'],
            ['email' => '[email protected]'],
            ['email' => '[email protected]'],
        ];

        $this->leadQueryServiceMock
            ->expects(self::once())
            ->method('getAll')
            ->willReturn($unsorted);

        $fetched = $this->service->getAll();

        $expected = $unsorted;
        asort($expected);

        self::assertEquals($expected, $fetched);
    }
}

Integration tests can be written for infrastructure code. For instance, we can use an SQLite database file to assert the logic for database operations.

Be aware that I am creating an SQLite temp database file on-demand for each test execution with $this->databaseFilePath = '/tmp/test-' . time(); and, thanks to the Dbal library, we can be confident that operations could work for any database.

-> It is highly recommended that, as an alternative, create a container with a seeded database that is compatible with your production database system.

<?php

namespace Test\Integration\Blog\Infrastructure;

use Blog\Infrastructure\DbalLeadQueryService;
use Doctrine\DBAL\Connection;
use Faker\Factory;
use Faker\Generator;
use Test\TestCase;

class DbalLeadQueryServiceTest extends TestCase
{
    private string $databaseFilePath;

    private Generator $faker;
    private Connection $connection;

    private DbalLeadQueryService $service;

    public function testCanGetAll()
    {
        $this->addEmail($email1 = $this->faker->email());
        $this->addEmail($email2 = $this->faker->email());
        $this->addEmail($email3 = $this->faker->email());

        $expected = [
            ['email' => $email1],
            ['email' => $email2],
            ['email' => $email3],
        ];

        $fetched = $this->service->getAll();

        self::assertEquals($expected, $fetched);
    }

    protected function setUp(): void
    {
        parent::setUp();

        $this->faker = Factory::create();

        $this->createLeadTable();

        $this->service = new DbalLeadQueryService($this->connection());
    }

    protected function tearDown(): void
    {
        parent::tearDown();

        $this->dropDatabase();
    }

    private function connection(): Connection
    {
        if (!isset($this->connection)) {
            $this->databaseFilePath = '/tmp/test-' . time();

            $config = new \Doctrine\DBAL\Configuration();
            $connectionParams = [
                'url' => "sqlite:///{$this->databaseFilePath}",
            ];

            $this->connection = DriverManager::getConnection($connectionParams, $config);
        }

        return $this->connection;
    }

    private function dropDatabase()
    {
        @unlink($this->databaseFilePath);
    }

    private function createLeadTable(): void
    {
        $this->connection()->executeQuery('CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS leads ( email VARCHAR )');
    }

    private function addEmail(string $email): int
    {
        return $this->connection()->insert('leads', ['email' => $email]);
    }
}

Conclusion

PHP is evolving very quickly, with new features that enable more quality software, help developers and is even more committed to the fact that most of the web run flavours of PHP code. New features improve readability, software architecture, test coverage and performance. Those are all proof of a mature and live language.

Upgrade to PHP 8.1 and use "new in initializers" as soon as possible. You will not regret it.

If there is something you want to discuss more, let me know in the comments.

Links:

  1. New in initializers RFC
  2. Road to PHP 8.1
  3. Dependency Injection
  4. Dependency inversion principle
  5. Interface segregation principle
  6. Solid relevance
  7. SOLID principles
Categorias
Tropeçando

Tropeçando 104

CASL

CASL (pronounced /ˈkæsəl/, like castle) is an isomorphic authorization JavaScript library which restricts what resources a given client is allowed to access. It's designed to be incrementally adoptable and can easily scale between a simple claim based and fully featured subject and attribute based authorization. It makes it easy to manage and share permissions across UI components, API services, and database queries.

The Danger of Dark Patterns (With Infographic)

Are manipulative design techniques undermining your product and leading users to make bad decisions? Here’s how to avoid dark patterns and create ethical products that enhance customer trust.

Dark patterns are a popular design topic but defining them can be difficult. That’s because they’ve become so prevalent that many have been adopted as design conventions. It’s crucial to understand these manipulative techniques in order to create ethical products that enhance customer trust.

DevOps: Shift Left to Reduce Failure

The term “shift left” refers to a practice in software development in which teams focus on quality, work on problem prevention instead of detection, and begin testing earlier than ever before. The goal is to increase quality, shorten long test cycles and reduce the possibility of unpleasant surprises at the end of the development cycle—or, worse, in production.

Does varchar(n) use less disk space than varchar() or text?

Tl;DR: No. This is a recurrent doubt due to a real difference in many other database systems. But not for PostgreSQL. Although documentation explains that internally, the core system has a wise way to split and store string data internally instead of simply reserving the total space, it is hard to believe. Here we have proof that there is no real difference.

How to ease the pains of testing legacy code?

Practically every programmer in their career struggled with working on a legacy project or one in which at least part of the job involved some kind of legacy code. I will show you some tips and tricks which will make writing unit tests for legacy applications much easier and less hurtful. Let’s go deep into testing legacy code!

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Miscelaneous

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What is Domain-Driven Design (DDD)

A definition of DDD as a software design discipline

How to refactor without overtime and missed deadlines

A lot of software engineers, including myself, are passionate about code quality. This striving for a well-shaped codebase, while getting things done could cost one quite a few hours and nerves, though. I'm constantly looking for ways to achieve these two goals without significant trade-offs. Stand by for the current state.

How to test a PHP app? PHP unit testing and more

Do you really need to create tests? Of course, there are many reasons to do so – improved quality of software, decreased risks while making changes in the code, identifying errors, checking business requirements, improving security…I could go on and on with that. The point is – tests do make a difference.

Application Modernization Isn’t Just Fighting Legacy Tech

When radical innovations were rare, businesses could afford to treat application modernization as a sporadic reaction to change. A decade ago, most organizations modernized only when they were compelled to.

However, in the era of open-source and continuous innovation, modernization can’t be an isolated, one-off project. Businesses need to embrace a culture that celebrates change to thrive in the digital age. According to a report by F5, the past year has witnessed 133% growth in application modernization.

Responsible tech playbook

As technology becomes more central to peoples' lives, and to what businesses do, and how they succeed, the ethics of technology must come into sharper focus.

Despite technology becoming a critical part of what enterprizes do, it's not always clear how to approach and apply technology in an ethical or responsible way.

The Responsible tech playbook is a collection of tools, methods, and frameworks that help you to assess, model and mitigate values and risks of the software you are creating with a special emphasis on the impact of your work on the individual and society.

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OWASP TOP 10

Each year, OWASP (the Open Web Application Security Project) publishes the top ten security vulnerabilities. It represents a broad consensus about the most critical security risks to web applications. Click through on the lessons below to learn more about how to protect against each security risk.

Your Product Owner Is Not Your Product Manager

Your Product Owner Is Not Your Product Manager. Product management has evolved to encompass numerous roles and responsibilities. Leaders looking to hire a product professional must consider what skills and knowledge their business needs demand.

While the market has evolved and will continue to evolve, there remains a need for both a product owner’s and a product manager’s skills and expertise. By considering the nature and scale of a project and understanding the skills and responsibilities associated with each of these distinct roles, leaders can ensure they hire the right person to help them develop and launch products successfully.

Insert-Only Tables and Autovacuum Issues Prior to PostgreSQL 13

If you have write-only tables (or heavy, heavy writes), you may need to check this post. Autovacuum has some issues before PostgreSQL 13, and you might have some great workarounds to use until upgrading your database version.

Enterprise CI/CD best practices

Free book with 23 best practices to apply to your CI/CD pipeline. Those best practices aim to help you design (or use as a checklist) a solid pipeline for your software.

A war story about COVID, cloud, and cost. And why serverless wins.

Nice story about serverless outcomes and potential. Based on COVID-19 pushing of infrastructure and computing services, billing is an important subject. The article has an excellent example of how both scale environment and low bill costs work together on a serverless tech stack.